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Cultivation of blackcurrant in foil tunnel
Black currant is a fruit shrub widely grown on plots and backyard gardens. The fruits contain a lot of vitamins, have pro-health properties and are a valued raw material . With currant cultivation, as with any other farm, it is essential to create optimal conditions for growth, development and fruiting. Foil tunnels protect the plant against harmful weather factors such as low temperatures, acid or intense rains as well as strong winds. The foil cover also protects fruits from black birds and sparrows, which devour a large part of the crop, pollute and harm the shrubs.
Conditions for growing currants in the garden tunnel
A slightly acidic, clayey or sandy loam with a pH of 6.0 to 6.5 is beneficial for the growth of currant . The strong growth of the plant occurs in light moist substrates and most importantly - fertile. Protection against frost will be an important factor when establishing a plantation . Flowering already begins in April, where low temperatures can still threaten the development of the plant. Horticultural tunnels create a special microclimate, offering protection to the blackcurrant at the most important time. A good foil shades bushes and shrubs, creating optimal conditions for later fruiting.
Soil for growing currant in polytunnels
Soil preparation is a priority for new planting sites with blackcurrant bushes. Weed control, weed clearance and chemical analysis with which fertilization is needed are some of the most important agronomic practices that affect the entire development process.
- Fore cropping - Plants planted prior to the main crop improve the phytosanitary condition of soil. The purpose of such activities is to create a favorable soil structure, reduce the risk of disease ,pest and fight weeds. Plants selected as fore crops for currants are turnips, mustard, bean family plants. Green fertilizers supply the soil with nitrogen and block the development of weeds; once plowed , plants become humus . Soils with low pH (below 6) are limed until sufficient acid is obtained.
Varieties of blackcurrant to grow in a greenhouse
Differences between varieties come from the bush type, ripening fruit and resistance to diseases and pests. In order to benefit from a longer harvest, it is worth planting several varieties so that another fruit begins to produce when one approaches the end of its harvest.
Old varieties like dominate in Poland. These are variations adapted to the Polish climate, but not optimal in the production department. Ben Hope, Ben Garin, Gracia, Gagatai, and Ben Connan are some of the tasty, big and fast-growing fruits.
Planting of currant bushes under cover
Planting starts in autumn. Shrubs growing in the tunnel before winter begin to produce a root system that will make the plant grow faster in the spring. Introducing blackcurrant into greenhouses at other times does not create optimal conditions. We plant in furrows, 10 cm lower in the ground than in the nursery.
Blackcurrant care in foil tunnels
- Cutting bushes - after planting in the hoophouse, we make the first cut that will help the plant to settle in a new place. We cut shoots over the second stem above the ground, cutting 2 cm above it. This way, stability between the upper and lower parts of the plant is maintained. Be careful not to damage the root system during the operation. For the next three years, dry, damaged or fallen shoots are cut off. It is only in the fourth year that a proper cut begins. Such a treatment rejuvenates shrubs , getting rid of four-year branches, damages and any lesions.
- Rejuvenating cuts - the abundant fruiting occurs on the growth of annuals, newly grown from the main stem or on side shoots. Consequently, every year, such a treatment is carried out so that the plant produces a lot of shoots. Old branches, although they form new buds, have a negligible impact on the crop.The time for cutting is spring or beginning of February or March, before the buds are formed. The second convenient time is after harvest or before autumn.
- Weed control in blackcurrant - weeds competing with the main crop take away water and nutrients. They weaken the bushes and their yielding, and further growth is significantly slowed down. Before fighting them, you should learn about the species occurring in the plantation, mainly whether they are perennial or annual varieties. Such information will allow us to find the appropriate herbicide spray. It should be noted that planting starts 4 weeks after spraying the substance.
From the very beginning, weed control is implemented. A good way is to use herbicidal strips, and in the intervals, a mechanical fallow can be performed. Thirdly, important for plants, weeds should be systematically mowed.
The intercropping grass stops the growth of weeds. When using herbicides, you should familiarize yourself with the substances authorized by the Plant Protection Program. Adapt the ratio to crop size, weed species and soil condition.
- Fertilization of blackcurrant - adjustment of fertilization depends on soil richness and its micro- and macro element binding. Based on chemical analysis, we can easily find out what ingredients are needed to enrich the soil. The cost of such laboratory test is limited. The resulting benefits are abundant yields and healthy shrubs for many years. Potassium fertilization is carried out in the second year (fall) and phosphorus is not given at all because the plant has low demand for this ingredient. Nitrogen or ammonium nitrate is supplied on the basis of growth and leaf color at 120 kgN / ha.
Diseases of blackcurrant
Every attack of pathogens and pests has an impact on the crop, the currant itself is exposed to a lot of diseases and pests. Many of them destroy the leaves, slow down the inflorescence, eat fruit or reduce the frost resistance.
Applying care and the right means reduces the chances of any infestation. When changes occur, a diagnosis should be made, followed by a chemical intervention.
The first spray is done before the flowering of currants. Fungicides, as a preventative measure, protect shrubs from fungi. The second spray is applied after flowering and subsequent treatments in safe proportions for up to 14 days.